Biology 11          		      Mid-Term Exam                       NAME: __________________

Part I: Multiple Choice. Put the letter of the correct answer in the blank to the left.

____ 1.  Structures found in the cells of both plants and animals are
a) cell walls and cell membranes
b) centrioles and lysosomes
c) chloroplast and ribosomes
d) cell membranes and chromosomes
e) contractile vacuoles and leucoplasts

____ 2.  Which structure  is common to ALL eukaryotic cells?
a) chloroplast 
b) mitochondrion
c) cell wall 
d) bilayer membrane
e) nucleus

____ 3.  A few months after a family of wolves is released in a national park, biologists studying the population of flying squirrels in the park record a significant decline in the flying squirrel population.  Which statement represents a hypothesis?
a) What is causing the decline of the flying squirrel population?
b) The wolves may be eating the squirrels.
c) Flying squirrel bones are found in the feces of wolves.
d) Wolves are observed watching flying squirrels with hungry eyes.
e) A paper is found in the biology library listing flying squirrels among several other rodents as a food source for wolves.

____ 4.  If a group of living cells swim away from a source of light, they are demonstrating which characteristic of living organisms?
a) Living things grow, develop, and reproduce.
b) Life is organized
c) Living things react to environmental change.
d) Life requires energy.
e) Living things adapt

____ 5.  Which of the following is true about secondary consumers in an ecosystem?
a) They eat only plants.
b) They are eaten by primary consumers.
c) They are smaller and weaker than are primary consumers.
d) They are fewer in number than are primary consumers.
e) They contain the greatest total biomass in the system.

____ 6. In the nitrogen cycle, the transformation of gaseous nitrogen into nitrogen-containing compounds is performed primarily by
a) fungi
b) bacteria
c) green plants
d) herbivores
e) carnivores

____ 7. Which of the following organisms is most likely to be located at the top of the pyramid of biomass?
a) grass
b) grasshopper
c) snake
d) mouse
e) hawk

____ 8. Which is the description of a population?
a) all of the different kinds of fish in a pond
b) all of the autotrophs in a pond
c) all of the pied-billed grebes (a type of bird) in a pond
d) all of the organisms interacting with each other in a pond
e) all the carnivores in a pond

____ 9. The ability to manufacture food occurs in:
a) plants only
b) herbivores only
c) decomposers only
d) plants and herbivores only
e) plants, herbivores, and omnivores

____ 10. Biologists conduct experiments and make observations of the natural world in order to help them:
a) prove their hypotheses are correct.
b) construct a conceptual view of the natural world.
c) discover the truth of reality
d) disprove theories based on the supernatural.

____ 11. Some people have suggested that planting millions of trees will counteract the human addition of CO2 to the atmosphere.  In the long term, this idea could work only if:
a) biomass is produced.
b) photosynthesis occurs.
c) the trees never decompose or burn.
d) the trees are planted in the natural forest.
e) extra fertilizer is provided to the trees.

____ 12. All of the following are density-dependent factors that limit animal populations EXCEPT
a) weather
b) predation
c) birth-rate
d) food competition
e) mortality

____ 13. The total magnification of a compound microscope with a 5X eyepiece and an objective power of 10X is:
a) 15X
b) 500X
c) 50X
d) 25X

____14.  An example of  the result of stress in a population would be:
a) decline in food supply
b) decline in offspring
c) warmer climate
d) increased reproductive rate

____15.  The centers for metabolism in the cell:
a) Golgi bodies
b) Ribosomes
c) Mitochondria
d) Nuclei

____16.  The following is NOT a characteristic unique to living organisms:
a) need for energy
b) need for water
c) adaptation
d) cellular composition

Part II: Complete each of the following with the proper word or words.

1. Organelle where energy necessary for cell activities is produced.		______________

2. Boundary that separates a plant cell from its environment.				______________

3. The storage area of a cell.												______________
4. The organelle which produces energy.										______________
5. A tissue is a group of                             						______________
6. An example of an abiotic factor would be									______________

7. Organism that feeds on dead tissues and waste.							______________

8. Organism that feeds only on other organisms that produce their own food. ______________ 

9. Leeuwenhoek  was bored with his job as a                          		______________
10. The site of photosynthesis in a green plant is the organelle called 	______________
11. Organisms that make their own food.										______________

12. All the possible feeding relationships that exist within an ecosystem.	______________

13. Robert Hooke was the inventor of the  									______________

14. Cells which lack a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles. 		______________

15. Organelle responsible for protein production.							______________

Part III:  Related Terms.  The terms below all have something in common except for one.  
Place the letter of the term which does not belong and indicate why it does not fit with the others.

1. _____ a) nosepiece		b) ocular	       c) fine adjustment	d) autoclave

2. _____ a) vacuole	    	b) chloroplast	   c) cell wall		    d) centriole

3. _____ a) mitochondria 	b) energy          c) nitrogen		    d) carbon dioxide

4. _____ a) Virchow         b) Needham         c) Spallanzani	    d) Redi 

Part IV: Short Answer. Reply to each of the following in detail.

1.  a) List the three statements of the cell theory.  

   b)  Explain the roles played by the various scientists in arriving at this idea.

2. Describe the theory of symbiosis, as it relates to the development of eukaryotes.

3. "The day to day workings of a cell can be compared to the running of a factory. "  
Support this statement by selecting any five cell parts and for each part chosen:

a) state its function in the cell.
b) Name the factory part that is similar in function and give a reason for your answer. 

4. A) List and describe five characteristics of  living things.
B) Relate each of these to yourself.


PART V:  SUBJECTIVE.  Answer ANY THREE complete questions from this section.

1. a) Construct a food web to show the flow of energy in the ecosystem.  
       Use the following organisms in your web:  
       3 producers,  2 herbivores, 3 carnivores, 1 omnivore and 1 scavenger.  

b) Which niche has the greatest biomass?  ______________

c) What would happen to the energy flow in this ecosystem, if the entire population of herbivores
   were to be wiped out?

d) List the second order consumers in your web.  

e) What is the chief source of energy for this web?  __________________

f) What is the difference between a food web and food chain?  

g) Set up a food chain, using some of the organisms from your food web.

2. In 1950, a new species of white-tailed deer was introduced into a rugged,  scrubby, vegetation area of the Cape Breton highlands.   The population growth was tracked and the actual numbers recorded every five years; the latest numbers being for 1995.   During this time, in 1980, the entire population of coyotes was killed off by hunters in an attempt to help out the deer population. 
     (Note:  the coyote is a natural predator of the deer.)

The data table below represents the numbers for the deer population.


1950 100
1955 305
1960 520
1965 750
1970 800
1975 810
1980 808
1985 960
1990 750
1995 300

a) Using the data table, draw a graph to show the growth in the deer population from 1950 
  to 1995.  Plot the time, in years, on the horizontal axis and the numbers on the vertical axis.

b)  Does the graph show normal growth from 1950 to 1980?  Explain.

c)  What does the term "carrying capacity" mean? 

d)  How does it apply to this graph?

e)  Is this population of deer being limited by "density-dependent" factors?   ________

f)  What do you suppose happened in 1985 to cause a change in the deer population?

g)  If the coyotes had not been killed,  describe what might have happened to the deer population during the next five years.   Give some detail.

3.  Redi and Pasteur were two scientists involved in experiments centering on spontaneous generation.   

a) What is meant by the "theory of spontaneous generation"?

b) Using properly labelled diagrams, describe how the experiments of Redi and Pasteur differed. 

b) What was Redi's conclusion?   Why?

c) What was Pasteur's conclusion?  Why?

d)  Design an experiment to illustrate the parts of the scientific method.    
    Be sure to indicate what variables were involved.  Indicate how controls were used.

4.  a) What is meant by the term concept map?
    b) Draw and properly label a concept map to illustrate the carbon cycle.


   c) Why is the carbon cycle important?

   d) If the carbon cycle is improperly balanced, what happens?

   e) How can this outcome be somewhat controlled?

   f) With the aid of a properly labelled diagram, describe the importance of the nitrogen cycle.