Biology 12                           Mid-Term Exam  			Name: ________________

Part 1:  Complete each of the following with the correct word or words:

1.  The term semi-permeable means _____________________.

2.  The cytoplasm is 90% fluid and contains glucose, free amino acids and _________.

3.  The four major elements in our bodies are _________, __________, _______, and ________.

4.  The endosymbiotic theory suggests that chloroplasts were once _____________.

5.  Reproduction of sexual cells takes place by the process of _________________.

6.  Sperm cells and egg cells are called _____________.

7.  Genetic information in the form of DNA is carried by  ______________.

8.  A new _________ must be manufactured for each daughter cell during cell division.

9.  A human cell has _____ pairs of chromosomes.

10. The term homologous means _____________________.

11. An example of a haploid cell is the ___________.

12. The purpose of the flagellum in a male sex cell is ____________________.

13. The purpose of the centromere is ___________________.

14. A polypeptide is a string of _____________.

15. The structure of DNA is a _____________________ as proposed by Watson and Crick.

16. The change in living organisms over time is called _____________.

17. Molecules that dissolve in _______ pass through the membrane more easily.

18. Osmosis refers to the transmission of the ________________ molecule.

19. An active transport mechanism requires _____________.

20. Aristotle is remembered today because ___________________________.

Part II: Definitions.  Define ANY TWELVE of  the following:



carrier proteins



 polar body:


natural selection


fluid mosaic



binary fission



Part III:  Multiple Choice. Place the letter of the correct answer in the blank at left.

1.______  Which structure  is common to ALL eukaryotic cells?
a) chloroplast 
b) mitochondrion
c) cell wall 
d) bilayer membrane
e) nucleus

2. ______ With the exception of red blood cells that do not have nuclei, your sex cells, and a few cells with random mutations that have occurred in your lifetime, the living cells in your body have _________ as the fertilized egg cell from which you developed.
a) the same genetic information
b) the same cell membrane receptor proteins
c) the same functions
d) all of the same enzyme reactions
e) the same size and shape

3.______  What would be the sequence of bases of an mRNA molecule that was transcribed from the sequence of DNA bases shown above.

 4.______ A cell would hydrolyse itself if these structures broke apart:
a)  basal bodies 
b) mitochondria  
c) food vacuoles           
d) lysosomes 
e) leucoplasts

5.______  The organelle that is a major producer of ATP and is found in both heterotrophs and autotrophs is the
a) chloroplast
b) nucleus
c) ribosome
d) Golgi apparatus
e) mitochondrion

6.______  A diploid cell has three pairs of homologous chromosomes designated J1/J2, K1/K2, and L1/L2.  Which of the following represents a probable chromosome complement in a haploid cell formed by meiosis?
a) J1 and K1
b) J1 and J2
c) J2, K1, and L2
d) J1, J1, K2 and K2
e) J1, J2, K1, K2, L1, and L2

7.______  A spermatid  is:
a)   single strand; 2n
b)   double strand; 2n
c)   single strand ; n
d)   double strand; n

Part IV: Short Answer.  Answer each of the following:

1.  Describe how the term Asymbiosis@ relates to the origin of cells.

2.  a) The bacterium is used as an example of a prokaryote.  Explain.

     b)  Draw and label the parts of a bacterium.

3.  What happens during Oogenesis?

4.  a)  Describe an experiment that helped establish the belief that DNA is the chemical basis of                 heredity.

    b)  State three factors that distinguish a DNA molecule from a RNA molecule.

Part V.  Answer each of  the following in detail:

1. (a) . List and describe some differences between meiosis and mitosis.

   (b)   Use properly labelled diagrams to describe  the four stages of mitosis.

2.  a)  Using a properly labelled diagram, describe the phospholipid arrangement within a cell            membrane.

    b) What is the role of cholesterol in the cell membrane?

    c)  Describe how the cell membrane helps to achieve homeostasis and accomplishes the                       transport of various materials.   Refer to the active, passive and facilitated methods.

    d)  What happens to an onion cell placed in distilled water?    Why?

3.  a) What is meant by the term concept map?

    b) Using a concept map, describe the process of polypeptide synthesis.

     c)  Discuss the role of each of the following in protein synthesis:

        m - RNA

       t - RNA

4. a)  Your text presents five major areas that provide evidence for evolution:
       Summarize, in your own words, the evidence presented in ANY FOUR of these areas.

  b)  What were the major stages in the development of modern man?