Biology 11          		      Final Exam                       NAME: __________________

Part I: Multiple Choice.  Put the letter of the correct answer in the blank to the left.

1. ____ Which structure is common to ALL eukaryotic cells?
a) chloroplast 
b) mitochondrion
c) cell wall 
d) bilayer membrane
e) nucleus

2. ____ Which of the following organisms is most likely to be located at the top of the energy pyramid?
a) grass
b) grasshopper
c) snake
d) mouse
e) hawk

3. ____ During the carbon cycle, which of the following carbon compounds would be utilized as an energy source by green plants?
a) calcium carbonate
b) carbonic acid
c) organic molecules
d) carbon dioxide
e) carbon monoxide

____ 4.  A few months after a family of wolves is released in a national park, biologists studying the population of flying squirrels in the park record a significant decline in the flying squirrel population.  Which statement represents a hypothesis?
a) What is causing the decline of the flying squirrel population?
b) The wolves may be eating the squirrels.
c) Flying squirrel bones are found in the feces of wolves.
d) Wolves are observed watching flying squirrels with hungry eyes.
e) A paper is found in the biology library listing flying squirrels among several other rodents as a food source for wolves.

____ 5.  If a group of living cells swim away from a source of light, they are demonstrating which characteristic of living organisms?
a) Living things grow, develop, and reproduce.
b) Life is organized
c) Living things react to environmental change.
d) Life requires energy.
e) Living things adapt

____ 6.  Which of the following is true about secondary consumers in an ecosystem?
a) They eat only plants.
b) They are eaten by primary consumers.
c) They are smaller and weaker than are primary consumers.
d) They are fewer in number than are primary consumers.
e) They contain the greatest total biomass in the system.

7. ____ Which is the description of a population?
a)  all of the different kinds of fish in a pond
b)  all of the autotrophs in a pond
c)  all of the pied-billed grebes (a type of bird) in a pond
d)  all of the organisms interacting with each other in a pond
e)  all the carnivores in a pond

8. ____ Some people have suggested that planting millions of trees will counteract the human addition of CO2 to the atmosphere.  In the long term, this idea could work only if:
a) biomass is produced.
b) photosynthesis occurs.
c) the trees never decompose or burn.
d) the trees are planted in the natural forest.
e) extra fertilizer is provided to the trees.

____ 9. In the nitrogen cycle, the transformation of gaseous nitrogen into nitrogen-containing compounds is performed primarily by
a) fungi
b) bacteria
c) green plants
d) herbivores
e) carnivores

____ 10. The ability to manufacture food occurs in:
a) plants only
b) herbivores only
c) decomposers only
d) plants and herbivores only
e) plants, herbivores, and omnivores

____ 11. Biologists conduct experiments and make observations of the natural world in order to help them:
a) prove their hypotheses are correct.
b) construct a conceptual view of the natural world.
c) discover the truth of reality
d) disprove theories based on the supernatural.

____ 12. All of the following are density-dependent factors that limit animal populations EXCEPT
a) weather
b) predation
c) birth-rate
d) food competition
e) mortality

____ 13. The total magnification of a compound microscope with a 5X eyepiece and an objective power of 10X is:
a) 15X
b) 500X
c) 50X
d) 25X

____14.  An example of the result of stress in a population would be:
a)	decline in food supply
b)	decline in offspring
c)	warmer climate
d)	increased reproductive rate

____15.  The centers for metabolism in the cell:
a)	Golgi bodies
b)	Ribosomes
c)	Mitochondria
d)	Nuclei

                                                        Value 15 points

Part II: Fill in the Blanks. Complete each of the following with the proper word or words.

1. An example of an abiotic factor would be		     			______________

2. Organism that feeds on dead tissues and waste.         			 ______________

3. Organism that feeds only on other organisms that produce their own food. _____________

4. Organisms that make their own food.	               			 ______________

5. All the possible feeding relationships that exist within an ecosystem  is called  
6. The term "observation" means 			         ____________________________.

7.  A microscope's magnification is  calculated by             ____________________________.

8.  The cover slip has two purposes:                __________________ and ________________

9.   The hydra belongs to what kingdom?   					_______________.

10. The calciferous glands of an earthworm are used to        ___________________________.

11. The anterior end of the earthworm contains the                                     _______________.

12. Euglena can manufacture its own food due to the presence of              _______________.												
Value 12 points

Part III: Definitions. Give the meaning for the following:






										               Value  5 points

Part IV Matching.  Place the correct number in the blank.

a _________    protein synthesis 	               				 1 Golgi complex
b __________  energy production for use by the cell 	   		 2 lysosome
c __________  storage of lytic enzymes        				     3 ribosomes

d _________    structural support               				 4 chromosomes
e __________  storage of hereditary  information             	 5 actin filaments
f __________  controls the flow of material into and out of the cell   	 6 nucleolus
g __________ chemical processing of proteins for export          7 mitochondria
h _________  ribosomal subunit synthesis          		 		 8 plasma membrane
										            	Value  5 points

    PART V:  Short Answer.  Reply to each of the following questions in detail.

1. a) Construct a food web to show the flow of energy in the ecosystem.  
      Use the following organisms in your web:  
      3 producers,  2 herbivores, 3 carnivores, 1 omnivore and 1 scavenger.  

b) Which niche has the greatest biomass?  ______________

c) What would happen to the energy flow in this ecosystem, if the entire population of herbivores    were wiped out?

d) List the second order consumers in your web.  

e) What is the chief source of energy for this web?  __________________

f) What is the difference between a food web and food chain?  

g)  Set up a food chain, using some of the organisms from your food web.

										                Value 10 points

2.	In 1950, a new species of white-tailed deer was introduced into a rugged,  scrubby, vegetation area of the Cape Breton highlands.   The population growth was tracked and the actual numbers recorded every five years; the latest numbers being for 1995.   During this time, in 1980, the entire population of coyotes was killed off by hunters in an attempt to help out the deer population. 
     (Note:  the coyote is a natural predator of the deer.)

      The data table below represents the numbers for the deer population.

                YEAR	NUMBER OF DEER

                1950	100
                1955	305
                1960	520
                1965	750
                1970	800
                1975	810
                1980	808
                1985	960
                1990	750
                1995	300

a)	Using the data table, draw a graph to show the growth in the deer population from 1950 
    to 1995. Plot the time, in years, on the horizontal axis and the numbers on the vertical axis.

b)	Does the graph show normal growth from 1950 to 1980?  Explain.

c)	What does the term "carrying capacity" mean? 

d)	 How does it apply to this graph?

e)   Is this population of deer being limited by "density-dependent" factors?   ________

f)	 What do you suppose happened in 1985 to cause a change in the deer population?

g)	If the coyotes had not been killed,  describe what might have happened to the deer population during the next five years.   Give some detail.

g)  List  and describe FOUR density-dependent factors.

								                       Value 12 points

Part VI: Diagrams. Draw and properly label the diagrams..

1.   a)  Draw and properly label a concept map to illustrate the carbon cycle.

     b)  Explain what happens if the carbon cycle becomes unbalanced.	

     c)  With the aid of a properly labelled diagram, describe the nitrogen cycle.

    d)   Explain what happens if the nitrogen cycle becomes unbalanced.

                                                          Value 12 points


2.  a)  Describe how blood travels within the heart.  
        Refer to the diagram below. 
        Make sure to refer to specific blood vessels.

   b) Why should a person exercise regularly?


										                  Value 7 points

2.  a)  Using a properly labelled concept map, describe the human digestive system.

    b)  Why aren't stomachs harmed by the acids necessary for digestion, or are they?   

										                     Value 8 points

Part VII:  Reading.  Read the following article and answer the questions.

1.	What new problems might result from using bacteria to fight pollution?

2.	How were the numbers of bacteria increased for use by scientists?

3.	Why are bacteria such good cleaning agents?

4.	What is the most common method of bioremediation?

5.	What are some other uses of bioremediation?

									                        Value 5 points