Bio 12			          	Final Exam	            	Name: _______________

Part 1: Complete each of the following with the correct word or words:

1.  The purpose of folds in the surface of the cerebrum is to ________________________.

2.  An example of a neurotransmitter is ___________________.

3.  The temporal lobe of the brain is involved with _______________________.

4.  Information about the environment is brought to the CNS by ________ neurons.

5.  The Krebs Cycle is another name for ______________.

6.  Fermentation of pyuvic acid forms __________, which can cause muscle    cramps.

7.  The fermentation of yeast cells produces _________ and _________.

8.  _________ are called the Apower houses@ of the cell. 

9.  The law of independent assortment was stated first by __________.

10.  Genes are closely linked in order to increase ___________________.

11.  Storage of hereditary information takes place in the _______________-.

12.  An endocrine gland requires/does not require _______________ ducts.

13.  Hormones regulate basic drives and _______________.

14.  Two endocrine glands are the _____________ and ___________.  

15.  Hormones act by ___________ ordinary cellular processes.

16.  The Fallopian tube is another name for the ______________.

17.  The primary source of estrogen is the _______________.

18.  A decline in progesterone and estrogen results in less oxygen reaching the  __________.

19.  The purpose of the autonomic nervous system is to ________________________.

20.  Late onset Diabetes is best treated with sulfonamides because __________________.

Part II: Definitions.  Define ANY TEN of the following:





carbon fixation



corpus luteum



somatic nerve

synaptic cleft

myelin sheath

refractory period

Part III: Multiple Choice.  Circle the letter of the correct choice in each of the following:

1.  Carbon dioxide molecules are used during photosynthesis in the:
a) photo phase
b) light reaction
c) light phase
d) dark phase

2.  The most important function of  cholorphyll  is to:
a) trap hydrogen
b) absorb light
c) split carbon dioxide
d) trap carbon dioxide

3. Enzymes and hormones are:
a) proteins
b) fatty acids
c) carbohydrates
d) monosaccharides

4. Mendel chose garden peas for his experiments because they differ in definite characteristics and:
a) they lived a long time
b) much work had been done with them before
c) they were easy to cross-pollinate
d) they were all the same size

5. Not a possible combination of an AaBB x AAbb cross:
a)   AaBb
b)   AABb
c)   AABB
d)   aABb
e)   AabB

6.  The blood type that is always evidence of a heterozygous condition is:
a) AB
b) A
c) B
d) O

7.  Any difference existing between identical twins are due to:
a) their genes
b) their environment
c) their mother's genes
d) their father's genes

8. With the exception of red blood cells that do not have nuclei, your sex cells, and a few cells with random mutations that have occurred in your lifetime, the living cells in your body have _________ as the fertilized egg cell from which you developed.
a) the same genetic information
b) the same cell membrane receptor proteins
c) the same functions
d) all of the same enzyme reactions
e) the same size and shape

9. One of the main functions of ATP in your body is to:
a) produce heat
b) convert oxygen and hydrogen to water
c) produce CO2
d) provide chemical energy for biosynthesis
e) assist in the fixation of  CO2

10. All of the following statements concerning cellular respiration are true EXCEPT
a) In the citric acid cycle, two molecules of CO2 and one molecule of FADH2 are produced for each acetyl-CoA that enters the cycle.
b) ATP is converted to ADP during two of the reactions of glycolysis
c) When aerobes respire anaerobically, they may build up an oxygen, debt that may be paid      eventually by the intake of oxygen
d) The metabolic breakdown of glucose yields more energy during fermentation than during           aerobic respiration
e) The conversion of glucose to pyruvic acid can occur in the absence of oxygen.

Part  IV: Completion.  Fill in the each blank with the correct word.

Cellular respiration is a complex series of chemical reactions that occur in both the __________ and the ___________ of a cell.  The similarity of a mitochondrion to a tiny cell suggests that the mitochondria may have evolved from ____________ beings that invaded larger cells.
The primary energy source for the cell is  ___________ which arises principally from the hydrolysis of glycogen, a polysaccharide stored in the  liver and _________.  From the liver, glucose may be carried by the ______________ system to target cells.  Upon arrival in the cytoplasm,  __________ takes place.  Its potential energy is thereby increased; it also acquires a negative charge which prevents its escape from the cell.
The energy that enters a cell in an energy-rich fuel such as glucose must be used  to produce _______ molecules.  The process begins with a series of reactions known collectively as _________. Organisms that emerged during the first billion years of the development of life on earth used no ________ to fuel their activities. 
The other three steps in the process of cellular respiration are _______________, _____________, and _____________ .  These take place in the _______________ and require _______________.  As a result of  cellular respiration _____ molecules of _______ are produced.  
The resulting water is removed by the _______ and the energy is released as ________.  The overall reaction is: __________________________________.

Part V:  Draw a concept map on the nervous system, using the following terms:

Brain					Peripheral Nervous System
Spinal cord						Somatic Nervous System
Voluntary					Autonomic Nervous System
Involuntary					Sympathetic Nervous System
Central Nervous System		Parasympathetic Nervous System

a) Box all words used in the map.
b) Use arrows to read how the map is to be read from level to level.
c) Use arrows to connect link lines where they are applicable.

PartVI: Genetic Problems.  Solve each of the following, showing the Punnet Square.
1.  In rabbits agouti coat colour (C) is dominant to chinchilla (Cch), which is dominant to
Himalayan ( Ch), which is dominant to albino(c).  If a male that is heterozygous for
chinchilla and Himalayan is crossed with a female that is heterozygous for Himalayan
and albino, what will the genotype and phenotype ratios be in their offspring?

2. Freckles are dominant over no freckles.   Brown eyes are dominant over blue eyes.
A blue-eyed lady marries a brown-eyed man with no freckles.  Complete a Punnet square, showing the possible genotypes of their children.   What are the phenotypic ratios of these offspring?

3. a)  If a man of blood group B marries a woman of blood group AB, what blood groups can  
       be expected among their children?

   b)  If a child has blood group A and the mother has blood group B, can the father be of
       blood group O ?

4. If white snap dragons are crossed with red snapdragons, the F1 offspring are pink.
   If this F1 generation is self-fertilized, the F2 generation produces what phenotypes?  Why?

5. With the help of a pedigree chart,  solve the following.
   A man and a woman, both of normal vision, have:

1) a color blind son, who has a daughter with normal vision
2) a daughter of normal vision, who has a color blind son and a normal visioned son.
3) Another daughter of normal vision has 5 sons, all normal.  

What are the probable genotypes of::  

grandfather?   		 grandmother? 
son #1?          	 his daughter?
daughter #2?    	 her sons?
Daughter #3?         her sons?

PART VII:  Give detailed answers for each of the following:

1. a)  Describe the effect of the autonomic nervous system on five organs of the body in                response to stress.

b) Using a properly labelled diagram(s), describe the transmission of a nerve impulse.

c) Label the following diagram.


2. Based on our discussions this term, describe five causes of mutation.  
   Refer to the  characteristics of three syndromes that we have studied.

3. Using the disease Diabetes mellitus as an example, explain how negative feedback  
   maintains a proper level of hormones.   Refer to each of these hormones by name. 
   Describe what each does and its source.  


3.  a)  Describe the ovarian cycle.  Refer to the origins and actions of specific hormones.


	b)  Explain each of  the stages in the diagram below.