Biology Sample Questions Part II: Definitions Define each of the following: pericardium capillary rugae peristalsis epiglottis contractile vacuole nematocyst taxonomy sessile key binomial nomenclature agar pseudopod alveoli pyloric sphincter ulcer genus bilateral symmetry ventricle flagellum lumen villi euglena diffusion osmosis phagocytosis Part III: Complete each of the following with the proper word or words: 1. When the alveoli are filled with fresh air, oxygen diffuses into the _______________. 2. Carbon dioxide and water are produced as a result of the process called ______________. 3. Most of the carbon dioxide produced by metabolism combines with water to form ________. 4. The large muscle separating the lungs from the abdominal cavity is ____________. 5. Lungs expand because ____________________________. 6. An effect of this inspiration on circulation is to ______________________. 7. A paramecium controls the effect of osmosis by _____________________________. 13. Intestinal bacteria live on organic material in feces and some produce ___________. 14. The process by which metabolic wastes are eliminated is called ______________. 15. Euglena can manufacture its own food due to the presence of _______________. 16. The ameba belongs to the ____________ kingdom. 1. When the alveoli are filled with fresh air, oxygen diffuses into the _______________. 2. Carbon dioxide and water are produced as a result of the process called ______________. 3. Most of the carbon dioxide produced by metabolism combines with water to form ________. 4. The large muscle separating the lungs from the abdominal cavity is ____________. 5. Lungs expand because ____________________________. 1. The scientific name Homo sapiens indicates that organisms given this name: a. belong to the species Homo b. belong to the genus Homo c. belong to the class Homo d. belong to the phylum Homo 2. Which kind of evidence would help most to classify an organism? a. the Organism's habitat b. the evolutionary relationships of the organism c. the organism's eating habits d. the function of the organisms s body parts 3. Which is true of organisms classified in the same genus? a. They are in the same order but in different families b. They belong to the same species but could be in different phyla c. They must be in the same kingdom but may be of different species d. They must be in the same kingdom but could be in different phyla 4. An animal that digests its food in a gastrovascular cavity provides a simple example of: a. extracellular digestion b. intracellular digestion c. digestion without enzymes d. a digestive tract with two openings 5. An obligate anaerobe bacteria: a. cannot live without oxygen b. cannot live with oxygen c. can live without oxygen d. has many mitochondria 6. These structures are usually found only in animal cells: a. nucleus b. centrioles c. ribosomes d. cell walls 7. In the development of animals, a single layer of cells called the endoderm gives rise to: a. the circulatory system b. the skeletal system c. the epidermis d. the digestive tract 8. Worms exhibit what kind of symmetry? a. radial b. spherical c. bilateral d. asymmetry 9. All arthropods have: a. unpaired appendages b. closed circulatory system c. an exoskeleton d. an endoskeleton 10. Humans belong to the class: a. amphibia b. mammalia c. animalia d. Homo 4. Which structure is common to ALL eukaryotic cells? a) chloroplast b) mitochondrion c) cell wall d) bilayer membrane e) nucleus Part IV: Short Answer Answer each of the following completely. 1. List some protists. 2. What are the characteristics of phylum Protista? 3. How do amoeba feed? 4. Describe euglena. 5. How do paramecia reproduce? 1. Describe the action of a bacteriophage. 2. What is a ?gram-negative? bacterium?_ 3. What is another name for AIDS? 5. How are bacteria beneficial? 6. What is a virus? 1. a) Describe the process that we call ?breathing?. b) Why can?t you hold your breath for very long? c) Why is a person?s blood pressure so closely watched? 3. a) Why aren?t stomachs harmed by the acids necessary for digestion, or are they? Explain. Part V: Topics Answer each of the following with the aid of a diagram or concept map. 1. Using a properly labelled diagram, describe how blood travels within the heart. 2. Using a properly labelled concept map, describe the human digestive process. Part II - Answer each of the following completely: 1. Why is the science of classification needed? 2. Living organisms are classified on the basis of what three things? 3. Draw and properly label a bacterium. 4. a) Draw and properly label a euglena. b) How is the euglena an example of symbiosis? 5. a) Draw and properly label a paramecium. b) How does it feed? Part III - Answer each of the following with examples: 1. How do they breathe? 2. Describe the gizzard. 3. What benefits to the farmer do earthworms provide? 4. Describe the circulation of blood in an earthworm. 5. What is the purpose of the calcareous glands? 1. List the five kingdoms with two characteristics for each. 2. a) Why are Latin names used in the classification system? b) Who set up our present classification system that uses five kingdoms? 3. a) List and describe one member of the Kingdom Monera. b) List three benefits of the organism named above. 4. List and describe three members of the Kingdom Protista. III. Using a properly labelled concept map, describe the human digestive process. IV. a) Describe the structure and function of the organs involved in human excretion. b) Describe the role of the hypothalamus in controlling the amount of water in urine. c) Why can?t you hold your breath for very long? II. Answer each of the following: 1. Describe one mechanism the body uses to get blood back to the heart. 2. Describe how blood travels in the heart. A properly labelled diagram would help. 3. Draw and properly label any one of the micro-organisms you have studied this year. 4. Describe the functions of five of the parts labelled in the above question. 5. What are some problems with using DDT? 6. Describe some environmental concerns in Cape Breton and outline possible solutions. Part II - Answer each of the following completely: 1. Why is the science of classification needed? 2. On what bases are living organisms classified? 3. Why is it believed that all organisms are related? 4. Describe how you can determine the magnification of a drawing? 5. Trace the history of our present day system of taxonomy. Part III - Answer each of the following with examples: 1. List the five kingdoms with two characteristics for each. 2. List the six main classes of the Subphylum Vertebrata, with two characteristics for each. 3. Describe an environmental incident that resulted in a change for the better. 4. List and describe three other phyla. Bio 531 Name: _________________ I. Define each of the following terms: a) diffusion - b) osmosis - c) phagocytosis - 2. Scientists who study classification 3. The large pincer claw of the crayfish _____4.Where proteins are made in the cell 5. The earthworm phylum 6. Earthworm muscles, when contracted, lengthen the body _____7.The germ layer which develops into the circulatory system 8. The outer cell layer which regulates what enters the cell 9. A unique balance organ in the crayfish 10. Bacteria which feed on dead plants and animals II. The modern day system of classification has__?.....kingdoms 12. The lip of the earthworm 13. The undersurface of an organism with bilateral symmetry 14. "Homo" is to genus as sapiens is to? 15. Specialized crayfish excretory organs, located in the head 16. The crayfish phylum 17. The "head" end of an organism with bilateral symmetry 18. Respiratory organs of the crayfish 19. Responsible for developing the binomial nomenclature 20. Respiration centers of the cell 21. Structures found only in plant cells 22. Muscles in the earthworm, when contracted, shorten the worm 23.Rod shaped bacteria 24. The top surface of organisms with bilateral symmetry 25. Organisms which can produce both egg and sperm 29. The class to which crayfish belong WORD LIST: a) Plasma membrane b) Ribosomes c) Mitochondria d) Linnaeus e) Taxonomists f) Five g) Bacilli h) Saprobes j) Anterior k) Dorsal I) Hermaphroditic m) Prostomium n) Annelida o) Coelom p) Circular q) Setae r) Cephalothorax s) Cheliped t) Green glands u) statocyst v) Gills w) Species x) Ventral y) Nucleus z) Chloroplasts aa) four bb) Longitudinal cc) Arthropoda dd)Crustacea ee)Mesoderm 2. A cosmetic company runs its own lab to carry out research specificallyon its products. A recent experiment was done to see whether using mascara (a cosmetic applied to the eyelashes) would increase the incidence of eye infections. A sterile swab was smeared across the eyelid and then placed in the mascara. The bacteria populations were sampled every day for one week and the following results obtained: DAY NUMBER OF BACTERIA 1 2000 2 6000 3 10000 4 32000 5 40000 6 20000 7 12000 a) Using the data from the table above, draw a graph to show the growth of the bacteria. Plot the days on the horizontal axis and the numbers on vertical axis. (Spts) b) Examine your graph carefully. Generally describe the growth pattern of the bacteria. Give reasons for your answer. (2pts) c) In class we studied the conditions necessary for bacterial growth. Discuss which ones were provided for in this experiment. (2pts) d) Based on the results shown , what can you conclude from this experiment? Support your answer. (1 pt) 3. Compare and contrast the circulatory systems of the earthworm and the crayfish. a) Describe, in det~iI, at least two similarities between the systems of the two organisms. b) Describe, in detail, at least three differences between the systems of the two organisms. (l0pts) 4. a) Describe the digestive system of the earthworm. UNDERLINE all key structures in your answer. (6pts) b) Describe four similarities between the digestive system of the earthworm and the crayfish. (4pts) 5. a) Construct a dichotomous classification key for the group of organisms below: cats, birds, snakes and dogs YOUR COMPLETED KEY must contain enough steps to look at four characteristics for these organisms. (Bpts) b) Draw and label a typical bacteria cell. Section One:Objective value Part A: Matching: Match the letters of the terms with the correct statements. Record your answers on the answer sheet 1. The balance organ of the crayfish is the? 2. A geographical region in the biosphere with a characteristic group of plants and animals is called? 3. The external covering of the earthworm is called the? 4. The part of the ecosystem where the organism lives is referred to as its? 5. The earthworm phylum is called? 6. OrgandIes in cells that are responsible for cellular respiration are called? 7. These earthworm muscles, when contracted, cause the earthworm to lengthen? 8. The control center of the cell is called the? 9. This is an example of a density-independent factor in a population? 10. The crayfish phylum is? 11. This is an example of a density-dependent factor in a population? 12. A jelly-like layer found separating the ectoderm and endoderm in the hydra is? 13. The type of symmetry found in the crayfish is? 14. A unit of the biosphere where energy and matter are transferred as organisms interact with each other and the environment is called? IS. A symbiotic relationship that benefits one and harms the other is called? 16. A symbiotic relationship that is beneficial to both organisms is called? 17. Free-floating photosynthetic organisms in a pond or lake are called? 18. In the ameba, an extension of the cytoplasm that is used for surrounding food is called? 19. This structure is used to control the balance of water in the ameba? 20. These structures, needed for cell reproduction, are found only in animal cells? Terms: (a) pseudopod (b) mutualism (c) nucleus (d) mitochondria (e) cuticle (I) mesoglea (g) bilateral (h) longitudinal (1) statocyst (j) habitat (k) biome (I) ecosystem (in) disease (n) Annelida (o) Arthropoda (p) forest fire (q) circular (r) l)arasitism (s) commensalism (t) phytoplankton (u) contractile vacuole (v) centriole Hollow mass of cells in the early development of an animal : a) zygote b) cleavage c) blastula d) grastula The first organisms were: a) aerobic autotrophs b) aerobic heterotrophs c) anaerobic autotrophs d) anaerobic heterotrophs An animal that can be divided into equal halves by passing a plane through the central axis of that animal, in any direction, has this type of symmetry: a) spherical b) radial c) bilateral d) asymmetry In Linnaeus' system of naming, organisms are identified by two names, the first name given is: a) species b) genus c) kingdom d) phylum Kingdom whose members are eukaryotic, heterotrophic, and non?mobile: a) Fungi b) Protista c) Monera d) Animalia Humans belong to this Order: a) Primates b) Hominidae c) Mammalia d) Chordata Phylum to which crayfish belong: a) Metazoa b) Annelida c) Cnidaria d) Anthropoda Taxon between Class and Family: a) Order b) Phylum c) Genus d) Division All of the following are density-dependent factors that limit animal populations EXCEPT a) weather b) predation c) birthrate d) food competition e) mortality All the following cell components are found in prokaryotic cells EXCEPT a) DNA b) ribosomes c) cell membrane d) nuclear envelope e) enzymes Structures found in the cells of both plants and animals are a) cell walls and cell membranes b) centrioles and lysosomes c) chloroplast and ribosomes d) cell membranes and chromosomes e) contractile vacuoles and leucoplasts An organism that is eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic, and lacks cell walls belongs to which of the following? a) Monera b) Protista c) Fungi d) Plantae e) Animalia Which of the following is true about secondary consumers in an ecosystem? a) They eat only plants. b) They are eaten by primary consumers. c) They are smaller and weaker than are primary consumers. d) They are fewer in number than are primary consumers. e) They contain the greatest total biomass in the system. If plant cells are immersed in distilled water, the resulting movement of water into the cells is called a) conduction b) active transport c) transpiration d) osmosis e) facilitated diffusion In the nitrogen cycle, the transformation of gaseous nitrogen into nitrogen-containing compounds is performed primarily by a) fungi b) bacteria c) green plants d) herbivores e) carnivores During the carbon cycle, which of the following carbon compounds would be utilized as an energy source by heterotrophs? a) calcium carbonate b) carbonic acid c) organic molecules d) carbon dioxide e) carbon monoxide Which of the following is the primary role of the lysosome? a) ATP synthesis b) Intracellular digestion c) Lipid transport d) Carbohydrate storage e) Protein synthesis Which of the following organisms is most likely to be located at the apex of the pyramid of biomass? a) grass b) grasshopper c) snake d) mouse e) hawk All of the following statements about the diagram are correct EXCEPT: a) The grasshopper is an herbivore. b) Only two trophic levels are depicted c) The mouse and grasshopper are at the same trophic level. d) The grass is a producer. e) All of the organisms except grass are consumers, regardless of position. The organic and inorganic materials in all the organisms in the diagram will eventually return to the environment by the action of: a) decomposers b) producers c) primary consumers d) secondary consumers e) carnivores Using an example for each, discuss the following ecological concepts: a) Succession b) Energy flow between trophic levels c) Limiting factors d) Carrying capacity Which organelle viewed using the electron microscope, appears to be a collection of fine granules and tiny fibers? a) mitochondrion b) ER c) chloroplast d) nucleolus e) Golgi S.L. Miller?s classic experiment demonstrated that a discharge of sparks through a mixture of gases could result in the formation of a large variety of organic compounds. All of the following gases were used in this experiment EXCEPT a) hydrogen b) methane c) ammonia d) oxygen e) water vapour A group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring. ______________ In a controlled experiment, the only variable being changed. ______________ A process that produces a body of knowledge about nature. ______________ An organism?s position in a food chain ______________ Organelle responsible for protein production is called ______________ Soil, light, temperature, and water are what kind of factors? ______________ Organism that feeds on dead tissues and waste. ______________ Organelle where energy necessary for cell activities is produced. ______________ Statements about events that always occur in nature. ______________ The total dry weight of all organic matter at different trophic levels ______________ Any change in our environment that causes a reaction. ______________ The highest rate of reproduction under ideal conditions. ______________ Boundary that separates the cell from its environment. ______________ Autotrophs are a representative of this group. ______________ The site of photosynthesis in a green plant is the organelle called the ______________ Organism that feeds only on other organisms that produce their own food. ______________ J-shaped curve ______________ Organisms that make their own food. ______________ All the possible feeding relationships that exist within an ecosystem. ______________ The belief that living organisms arise from non?living things. ______________ Cell's storage area. ______________ Cells that do not have a membrane bound nucleus. ______________ Proposed inheritance of acquired characteristics. ______________ Function as a processing, packaging , and delivery system in eukaryotes. ______________ Evolution of a new species. ______________ Disease-causing organism. ______________ Fluid filled cavity surrounded by mesoderm. ______________ Break down organic molecules, releasing energy for cell activities. ______________ Endocytosis of liquid droplets. ______________ "Dual organism" consisting of a fungus and a blue?green algae or a green algae.______________ Organelle where proteins are made from amino acids. ______________ Asexual reproduction of bacteria. ______________ Cell's control area. ______________ Lysogenic cycle results in the formation of this. ______________ Organelle not found in animal cells. ______________ Category an organism belongs to. ______________ Structures that have common ancestry. ______________ Adaptation that is a response to a stimuli in the environment ______________ The divergent evolution of a species to different roles in a new habitat. ______________ Matching: Place the correct number in the blank: a _________ protein synthesis 1 Golgi complex b __________ energy production for use by the cell 2 chromoplasts c __________ storage of lytic enzymes 3 ribosomes d _________ structural support 4 actin filaments e __________ storage of hereditary information 5 nucleus f __________ controls the flow of material into and out of the cell 6 nucleolus g _________ chemical processing of proteins for export 7 mitochondria h _________ ribosomal subunit synthesis 8 plasma membrane i _________ lipid synthesis and metabolism 9 lysosome j _________ responsible for the orange & yellow color of leaves in fall 10 smooth ER State five characteristics of living organisms.. Make a brief statement on how each characteristic applies to you. What is meant by the term concept map? Apply these concepts to the following concept map. predation water ecosystem interspecific abiotic forms interactions symbiosis light biotic forms commensalism competition intra specific A plant cell is placed in a hypertonic solution. Describe and explain what happens to this plant cell. A particular species of plant grows best when it is watered with a solution that contains an unknown amount of salt. a) Briefly design an experiment, stating three experimental groups and one control group, to determine a concentration of salt solution that is best. b) State the dependent and independent variables. c) State four variables that must remain constant. d) How is the solution that works best determined? The following data describes the growth of a bacterial colony over a period of time. Time(hours) Number of bacteria 0 0 1 4 2 6 a) Graph a representative diagram of this data. 3 16 (Label both axis on this graph) 4 32 5 64 b) The favourable survival temperature for this 6 128 particular species of bacteria is between 7 250 28?36 degrees Celsius. The favourable 8 256 reproducing temperature is between 9 252 32?34 degrees Celsius. 10 258 Describe the growth of the bacterial colony 11 280 and the temperature conditions during each 12 420 of the following time periods: 13 600 a) 17?20 hrs. 14 925 b) 7?10 hrs. 15 945 c) 0?2 hrs. 16 948 d) 11?15 hrs. 17 952 18 500 19 100 20 0 Describe the processes of ammonification, nitrification and assimilation that allow nitrogen to be recycled from organic to inorganic forms. State four ways in which nitrogen contained within the soil can be lost from the nitrogen cycle. Briefly describe how nitrogen is returned to the nitrogen cycle. State the cell theory. As cells within an organism become specialized, they become dependant on each other. Why? Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are two processes that are extremely important to the carbon cycle. State the general chemical equation for each process. Define succession. In general, what two types of factors change during succession. Describe, in general, the history 'of a community as it has evolved from bare rock to its second climax. Using a properly labelled diagram, describe the process of conjugation for paramecium. Describe the six aspects of Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection and apply it to bacteria's resistance to antibiotics. Cellular respiration provides energy for cells. How do the raw materials necessary for cellular respiration reach the cells of a complex multi- celled organism? Using one species of plant that has two types of flower colour and two different species of butterflies Create a scenario in which a variation becomes an adaptation. Why are viruses hard to classify? What is the importance of mechanical food breakdown? Describe the digestion of an earthworm. Include a labelled diagram. In what way is the euglena more adaptive to its environment then the paramecium? Using the paramecium, sponge, and crayfish for reference, describe the evolution of respiration. Why are a German Shepard and a poodle grouped within the same species? Using a diagram of a fish, show the locations of the five terms that help describe body positions related to bilateral symmetry. ith the aid of a diagram, describe the Lytic Cycle. Paramecium has a problem with water build up within the cell. a) Explain why water enters the cell? b) Explain how a paramecium copes with this problem? Create a classification key, based only on internal/external physical characteristics, for the following organisms: earthworm elodea virus bacteria euglena paramecium jellyfish crayfish How do intracellular and extracellular digestion differ? Organize the following organisms in order of complexity ( simple to complex). Provide reasons for each organisms placement/position in your sequence. (6 %) earthworm sponge paramecium bacteria crayfish jellyfish What is the function of differentiation during animal development? Using a diagram, show the location of the three germ layers. Using one species of plant that has two types of flower colour and two different species of butterflies Create a scenario in which a variation becomes an adaptation. Why are viruses difficult to classify? What is the importance of mechanical food breakdown? In what way is the euglena more adaptive to its environment then the paramecium? (2 %) Why are a German Shepard and a poodle grouped within the same species? With the aid of a properly labelled diagram, describe the Lytic Cycle. A paramecium has a problem with water build up within the cell. a) Explain why water enters the cell. b) Explain how a paramecium copes with this problem. Create a classification key, based only on internal/external physical characteristics , for the following organisms: earthworm elodea virus bacteria euglena paramecium jellyfish crayfish How do intracellular and extracellular digestion differ? Organize the following organisms in order of complexity (simple to complex). Provide reasons for each organisms placement/position in your sequence. earthworm sponge paramecium bacteria crayfish jellyfish What is the function of differentiation during animal development? A slight physical change in a trait. Area of water absorption in digestive tract. Specific blood vessel that delivers blood toward the head. Blood is this form of tissue Cro?Magnon belongs to this species: Basic unit of the lung where gases exit/enter blood. Process by which genetic information coded within a niRNA molecule directs the synthesis of a poly peptide. Sixty percent of blood make-up. The change in living organisms over time. Neutralizing fluid produced by liver. Only animals that possess a two-chambered heart. Divergent evolution of a species in response to different roles in a new habitat. Innermost layer of the food tube that contains epithelial, connective, and muscle tissues. Oxygen moves into cells by means of____________, but is transported in the blood by bulk flow. Pain in the heart as a result of insufficient blood flow. Type of gland that releases its secretions into ducts. Evolution of a new species. Inorganic substances needed by the body and obtained through diet. Organelle involved in breakdown of proteins and polysaccharides _________________. All single-celled organisms have a _____________ The term "semi-permeable" means ______________________ The inventor of the compound microscope was ________________ Leeuwenhoek invented _______________ Schleiden and Schwann are remembered because ____________________________ On the enclosed diagram locate the following cell organelles: lysosome mitochondrion chioroplast ribosome endoplasmic reticulum cell membrane Give one function for each of the above structures. Is this diagram a plant or animal cell or composite picture? Explain your answer. The outer boundary of a cell that controls what enters or exits. ______________ This process is due to the random movement of ions and other particles. ______________ The process by which substances are engulfed and taken into the cell. ______________ Cells which lack a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles. ______________ Describe the contributions of three different scientists to the development of cell theory. Give five differences between plant and animal cells. A marine sponge is placed in a fresh water pond. What will happen to this organism and why?